There are few places on Earth where people need not be concerned about flooding. Any place where rain falls is vulnerable, although rain is not the only impetus for flood.
West Japan is experiencing widespread flooding after Typhoon Lan touched down in late October 2017. The powerful storm resulted in landslides, torrential rain, and massive waves that injured over ninety people and left three dead.
How Floods Develop
A flood occurs when water overflows or inundates land that's normally dry. This can happen in a multitude of ways. Most common is when rivers or streams overflow their banks. Excessive rain, a ruptured dam or levee, rapid ice melting in the mountains, or even an unfortunately placed beaver dam can overwhelm a river and send it spreading over the adjacent land, called a floodplain. Coastal flooding occurs when a large storm or tsunami causes the sea to surge inland.
Most floods take hours or even days to develop, giving residents ample time to prepare or evacuate. Others generate quickly and with little warning. These flash floods can be extremely dangerous, instantly turning a babbling brook into a thundering wall of water and sweeping everything in its path downstream.
Disaster experts classify floods according to their likelihood of occurring in a given time period. A hundred-year flood, for example, is an extremely large, destructive event that would theoretically be expected to happen only once every century. But this is a theoretical number. In reality, this classification means there is a one-percent chance that such a flood could happen in any given year. Over recent decades, possibly due to global climate change, hundred-year floods have been occurring worldwide with frightening regularity.
Impact of Flooding
Moving water has awesome destructive power. When a river overflows its banks or the sea drives inland, structures poorly equipped to withstand the water's strength are no match. Bridges, houses, trees, and cars can be picked up and carried off. The erosive force of moving water can drag dirt from under a building's foundation, causing it to crack and tumble.
In the United States, where flood mitigation and prediction is advanced, floods do about $6 billion worth of damage and kill about 140 people every year. A 2007 report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development found that coastal flooding alone does some $3 trillion in damage worldwide. In China's Yellow River valley, where some of the world's worst floods have occurred, millions of people have perished in floods during the last century.
When floodwaters recede, affected areas are often blanketed in silt and mud. The water and landscape can be contaminated with hazardous materials, such as sharp debris, pesticides, fuel, and untreated sewage. Potentially dangerous mold blooms can quickly overwhelm water-soaked structures. Residents of flooded areas can be left without power and clean drinking water, leading to outbreaks of deadly waterborne diseases like typhoid, hepatitis A, and cholera.
But flooding, particularly in river floodplains, is as natural as rain and has been occurring for millions of years. Famously fertile floodplains like the Mississippi Valley in the American Midwest, the Nile River valley in Egypt, and the Tigris-Euphrates in the Middle East have supported agriculture for millennia because annual flooding has left millions of tons of nutrient-rich silt deposits behind.
Most flood destruction is attributable to humans' desire to live near picturesque coastlines and in river valleys. Aggravating the problem is a tendency for developers to backfill and build on wetlands that would otherwise act as natural flood buffers.
Many governments mandate that residents of flood-prone areas purchase flood insurance and build flood-resistant structures. Massive efforts to mitigate and redirect inevitable floods have resulted in some of the most ambitious engineering efforts ever seen, including New Orleans's extensive levee system and massive dikes and dams in the Netherlands. And highly advanced computer modeling now lets disaster authorities predict with amazing accuracy where floods will occur and how severe they're likely to be.
Need: (Within the framework of disasters, hunger claim the biggest proportion of recorded deaths.)
Statistics: (it is estimated at 9 million people succumbing to death annually.
While 1.2 billion, are immensely affected by hunger due to malnutrition, (Peoples and Bailey, 97). Basics account that world hunger is caused by poverty and the changing weather patterns. However, while such observations true, other opinions subdues such an argument. A close observation reveals that the world is abundant with enough food to feed the rest of humanity.
Research indicates that, the world has enough food production plentifully sufficient to feed about 4 pounds of grains per person daily. Shockingly, even nations that have plenty of food reserves, a section of the population starve (Peoples and Bailey, P. 68). The reasons for such occurrences are the foundation for research by academicians, government stakeholders and policy makers; for the actual reasons why there is unending hunger in the world. The world Bank Report asserts that an estimated 60% of malnutrition cases occur in countries with adequate food production (Bassett, Alex and Winter-Nelson, 2010).
Action step: (This implies that increasing food production is not a bearable option to eradicate hunger in the world. For example, the green revolution was a strategy developed by the World Bank in conjunction with various relief organizations across the world. The strategy achieved remarkable food production in, Mexico, India Brazil, and Philippines (Peoples and Bailey, P. 234). Nevertheless; a keen observation revealed that hunger was still a problem in the aforementioned states.)
Evidence: (The reason for huger prevalence is because; focusing on food production hinders distribution strategies, which ensures that food reaches those who deserve it. On the other hand, hunger is prevalent in the world due to natural disasters such draught, storms and floods. Whenever Natural disasters occur, the poor and vulnerable like children are the most affected in society. This can be due to denial by due powers the capability to obtain land or they earn low wages that cannot sustain them throughout their lives, (Winter-Nelson et al, P.123).)
Another postulation why there is world hunger is because of large-scale farming. Many researchers have posited that large-scale farming is a remedy for world hunger, nevertheless given that, a bigger proportion of farmers are in the Agricultural sector and practicing small-scale farming. They have the ability to reverse the trend since small scale farming cost -efficient way of food production. Researchers have found that, small-scale farming attain a high output per acreage since they exploit their farms more often and use intensive techniques to realize a continuous outcome. World hunger can be eradicated if the affected regions embark on land redistribution guidelines. It is not an easy strategy; however, Brazil has attained food security due to land redistribution techniques (Almeida and Transnational Institute, P.78)…”
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