Cross Media Convergence Essay Writing

This article describe science and technology convergence, with illustrations to convergence of emerging technologies (NBIC, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies) and convergence of media technology.

Definitions[edit]

"Convergence is a deep integration of knowledge, tools, and all relevant activities of human activity for a common goal, to allow society to answer new questions to change the respective physical or social ecosystem. Such changes in the respective ecosystem open new trends, pathways, and opportunities in the following divergent phase of the process" (Roco 2002,[1] Bainbridge and Roco 2016 [2]).

Siddhartha Menon defines convergence, in his Policy initiative Dilemmas on Media Covergence: A Cross National Perspective, as integration and digitalization. Integration, here, is defined as "a process of transformation measure by the degree to which diverse media such as phone, data broadcast and information technology infrastructures are combined into a single seamless all purpose network architecture platform".[3] Digitalization is not so much defined by its physical infrastructure, but by the content or the medium. Jan van Dijk suggests that "digitalization means breaking down signals into bytes consisting of ones and zeros".[4][5] Convergence is defined by Blackman, 1998, as a trend in the evolution of technology services and industry structures.[6] Convergence is later defined more specifically as the coming together of telecommunications, computing and broadcasting into a single digital bit-stream.[7][8][9] Mueller stands against the statement that convergence is really a takeover of all forms of media by one technology: digital computers.[10][11]

Media technological convergence is the tendency that as technology changes, different technological system sometimes evolve toward performing similar tasks. Digital convergence refers to the convergence of four industries into one conglomerate, ITTCE (Information Technologies, Telecommunication, Consumer Electronics, and Entertainment). Previously separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications), and video can now share resources and interact with each other synergistically. Telecommunications convergence (also called "network convergence") describes emerging telecommunications technologies, and network architecture used to migrate multiple communications services into a single network.[12] Specifically this involves the converging of previously distinct media such as telephony and data communications into common interfaces on single devices, such as most smart phones can make phone calls and search the web.

Media convergence is the interlinking of computing and other information technologies, media content, media companies and communication networks that have arisen as the result of the evolution and popularization of the Internet as well as the activities, products and services that have emerged in the digital media space. Many experts[who?] view this as simply being the tip of the iceberg, as all facets of institutional activity and social life such as business, government, art, journalism, health, and education are increasingly being carried out in these digital media spaces across a growing network of information and communication technology devices. Also included in this topic is the basis of computer networks, wherein many different operating systems are able to communicate via different protocols. Convergent services, such as VoIP, IPTV, Smart TV, and others, tend to replace the older technologies and thus can disrupt markets. IP-based convergence is inevitable and will result in new service and new demand in the market.[13] When the old technology converges into the public-owned common, IP based services become access-independent or less dependent. The old service is access-dependent.[14]

History for media technological convergence[edit]

Communication networks were designed to carry different types of information independently. The older media, such as television and radio, are broadcasting networks with passive audiences. Convergence of telecommunication technology permits the manipulation of all forms of information, voice, data, and video. Telecommunication has changed from a world of scarcity to one of seemingly limitless capacity. Consequently, the possibility of audience interactivity morphs the passive audience into an engaged audience.[15] The historical roots of convergence can be traced back to the emergence of mobile telephony and the Internet, although the term properly applies only from the point in marketing history when fixed and mobile telephony began to be offered by operators as joined products. Fixed and mobile operators were, for most of the 1990s, independent companies. Even when the same organization marketed both products, these were sold and serviced independently.

In the 1990s an implicit and often explicit assumption was that new media was going to replace the old media and Internet was going to replace broadcasting. In Nicholas Negroponte's Being Digital, Negroponte predicts the collapse of broadcast networks in favor of an era of narrow-casting. He also suggests that no government regulation can shatter the media conglomerate. "The monolithic empires of mass media are dissolving into an array of cottage industries... Media barons of today will be grasping to hold onto their centralized empires tomorrow.... The combined forces of technology and human nature will ultimately take a stronger hand in plurality than any laws Congress can invent."[16] The new media companies claimed that the old media would be absorbed fully and completely into the orbit of the emerging technologies. George Gilder dismisses such claims saying,[clarification needed] "The computer industry is converging with the television industry in the same sense that the automobile converged with the horse, the TV converged with the nickelodeon, the word-processing program converged with the typewriter, the CAD program converged with the drafting board, and digital desktop publishing converged with the Linotype machine and the letterpress." Gilder believes that computers had come not to transform mass culture but to destroy it.

Media companies put Media Convergence back to their agenda, after the dot-com bubble burst. Erstwhile Knight Ridder promulgated concept of portable magazines, newspaper, and books in 1994.[17]"Within news corporations it became increasingly obvious that an editorial model based on mere replication in the internet of contents that had previously been written for print newspapers, radio, or television was no longer sufficient."[18] The rise of digital communication in the late 20th century has made it possible for media organizations (or individuals) to deliver text, audio, and video material over the same wired, wireless, or fiber-optic connections. At the same time, it inspired some media organizations to explore multimedia delivery of information. This digital convergence of news media, in particular, was called "Mediamorphosis" by researcher Roger Fidler [1], in his 1997 book by that name. Today, we are surrounded by a multi-level convergent media world where all modes of communication and information are continually reforming to adapt to the enduring demands of technologies, "changing the way we create, consume, learn and interact with each other".[19]

Converging technological fields[edit]

NBIC, an acronym for Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information technology and Cognitive science, was, in 2014, the most popular term for converging technologies. It was introduced into public discourse through the publication of Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, a report sponsored in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation.[20] Various other acronyms have been offered for the same concept such as GNR (Genetics, Nanotechnology and Robotics) (Bill Joy, 2000, Why the future doesn't need us[21]). Journalist Joel Garreau in Radical Evolution: The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies — and What It Means to Be Human uses "GRIN", for Genetic, Robotic, Information, and Nano processes,[22] while science journalist Douglas Mulhall in Our Molecular Future: How Nanotechnology, Robotics, Genetics and Artificial Intelligence Will Transform Our World uses "GRAIN", for Genetics, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and Nanotechnology.[23] Another acronym coined by the appropriate technology organizationETC Group is "BANG" for "Bits, Atoms, Neurons, Genes".[24]

Converging science and technology fields[edit]

A comprehensive term used by Roco, Bainbridge, Tonn and Whitesides is Convergence of Knowledge, Technology and Society (2013).[25] Bainbridge and Roco edited and co-authored the Springer reference Handbook of Science and Technology Convergence (2016) defining the concept of convergence in various science, technology and medical fields.[26] Roco published Principles and Methods that Facilitate Convergence (2015)[27]

Examples of technology implications[edit]

Convergent solutions include both fixed-line and mobile technologies. Recent examples of new, convergent services include:

Convergent technologies can integrate the fixed-line with mobile to deliver convergent solutions. Convergent technologies include:

Example: Appliances[edit]

Some media observers expect that we will eventually access all media content through one device, or "black box".[28] As such, media business practice has been to identify the next "black box" to invest in and provide media for. This has caused a number of problems. Firstly, as "black boxes" are invented and abandoned, the individual is left with numerous devices that can perform the same task, rather than one dedicated for each task. For example, one may own both a computer and a video games console, subsequently owning two DVD players. This is contrary to the streamlined goal of the "black box" theory, and instead creates clutter.[29] Secondly, technological convergence tends to be experimental in nature. This has led to consumers owning technologies with additional functions that are harder, if not impractical, to use rather than one specific device. Many people would only watch the TV for the duration of the meal's cooking time, or whilst in the kitchen, but would not use the microwave as the household TV. These examples show that in many cases technological convergence is unnecessary or unneeded.

Furthermore, although consumers primarily use a specialized media device for their needs, other "black box" devices that perform the same task can be used to suit their current situation. As a 2002 Cheskin Research report explained: "...Your email needs and expectations are different whether you're at home, work, school, commuting, the airport, etc., and these different devices are designed to suit your needs for accessing content depending on where you are- your situated context." Despite the creation of "black boxes", intended to perform all tasks, the trend is to use devices that can suit the consumer's physical position.[30] Due to the variable utility of portable technology, convergence occurs in high end mobile devices. They incorporate multimedia services, GPS, Internet access, and mobile telephony into a single device, heralding the rise of what has been termed the "smart phone," a device designed to remove the need to carry multiple devices. Convergence of media occurs when multiple products come together to form one product with the advantages of all of them, also known as the black box. This idea of one technology, concocted by Henry Jenkins, has become known more as a fallacy because of the inability to actually put all technical pieces into one. For example, while people can have e-mail and Internet on their phone, they still want full computers with Internet and e-mail in addition. Mobile phones are a good example, in that they incorporate digital cameras, mp3 players, voice recorders, and other devices. This type of convergence is popular.[citation needed] For the consumer, it means more features in less space; for media conglomerates it means remaining competitive.

However, convergence has a downside. Particularly in initial forms, converged devices are frequently less functional and reliable than their component parts (e.g., a mobile phone's web browser may not render some web pages correctly, due to not supporting certain rendering methods, such as the iPhone browser not supporting Flash content). As the number of functions in a single device escalates, the ability of that device to serve its original function decreases.[31] As Rheingold asserts, technological convergence holds immense potential for the "improvement of life and liberty in some ways and (could) degrade it in others".[32] He believes the same technology has the potential to be "used as both a weapon of social control and a means of resistance".[32] Since technology has evolved in the past ten years or so, companies are beginning to converge technologies to create demand for new products. This includes phone companies integrating 3G and 4G on their phones. In the mid 20th century, television converged the technologies of movies and radio, and television is now being converged with the mobile phone industry and the Internet. Phone calls are also being made with the use of personal computers. Converging technologies combine multiple technologies into one. Newer mobile phones feature cameras, and can hold images, videos, music, and other media. Manufacturers now integrate more advanced features, such as video recording, GPS receivers, data storage, and security mechanisms into the traditional cellphone.

Example: Internet[edit]

The role of the internet has changed from its original use as a communication tool to easier and faster access to information and services, mainly through a broadband connection. The television, radio and newspapers were the world's media for accessing news and entertainment; now, all three media have converged into one, and people all over the world can read and hear news and other information on the internet. The convergence of the internet and conventional TV became popular in the 2010s, through Smart TV, also sometimes referred to as "Connected TV" or "Hybrid TV", (not to be confused with IPTV, Internet TV, or with Web TV). Smart TV is used to describe the current trend of integration of the Internet and Web 2.0 features into modern television sets and set-top boxes, as well as the technological convergence between computers and these television sets or set-top boxes. These new devices most often also have a much higher focus on onlineinteractive media, Internet TV, over-the-top content, as well as on-demandstreaming media, and less focus on traditional broadcast media like previous generations of television sets and set-top boxes always have had.

Example: Digital convergence[edit]

Digital Convergence means inclination for various innovations, media sources, content that become similar with the time. According to Harry Strasser, former CTO of Siemens "[digital convergence will substantially impact people's lifestyle and work style]".[34] The next hot trend in digital convergence is converged content, mixing personal (user generated) content with professional (copyright protected) content.[citation needed] An example are personal music videos that combine user generated photos with chart music. The German startup Trivid GmbH has developed Clipgenerator that enables users to create personal music videos with popular chart music and to share them in social communities such as facebook, myspace and Bebo.

Example: In the marketplace[edit]

Convergence is a global marketplace dynamic in which different companies and sectors are being brought together, both as competitors and collaborators, across traditional boundaries of industry and technology. In a world dominated by convergence, many traditional products, services and types of companies will become less relevant, but a stunning array of new ones is possible. An array of technology developments act as accelerators of convergence, including mobility, analytics, cloud, digital and social networks. As a disruptive force, convergence is a threat to the unprepared, but a tremendous growth opportunity for companies that can out-innovate and out-execute their ever-expanding list of competitors under dramatically new marketplace rules. With convergence, lines are blurred as companies diversify outside of their original markets. For instance, mobile services are increasingly an important part of the automobile; chemicals companies work with agribusiness; device manufacturers sell music, video and books; booksellers become consumer device companies; search and advertising companies become telecommunications companies ("telcos"); media companies act like telcos and vice versa; retailers act like financial services companies and vice versa; cosmetics companies work with pharmaceutical companies; and more. Mobile phone usage broadens dramatically, enabling users to make payments online, watch videos, or even adjusting their home thermostat while away at work.

Example: Media convergence[edit]

Generally, media convergence refers to the merging of both old and new media and can be seen as a product, a system or a process. Jenkins states that convergence is, "the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behaviour of media audiences who would go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they wanted"[35] According to Jenkins, there are five areas of convergence: technological, economic, social or organic, cultural and global.[36] So media convergence is not just a technological shift or a technological process, it also includes shifts within the industrial, cultural, and social paradigms that encourage the consumer to seek out new information. Convergence, simply put, is how individual consumers interact with others on a social level and use various media platforms to create new experiences, new forms of media and content that connect us socially, and not just to other consumers, but to the corporate producers of media in ways that have not been as readily accessible in the past.

Advances in technology bring the ability for technological convergence that Rheingold believes can alter the "social-side effects," in that "the virtual, social and physical world are colliding, merging and coordinating."[32] It was predicted in the late 1980s,[37] around the time that CD-ROM was becoming commonplace, that a digital revolution would take place, and that old media would be pushed to one side by new media. Broadcasting is increasingly being replaced by the Internet, enabling consumers all over the world the freedom to access their preferred media content more easily and at a more available rate than ever before.

However, when the dot-com bubble of the 1990s suddenly popped, that poured cold water over the talk of such a digital revolution.[citation needed] In today's society, the idea of media convergence has once again emerged as a key point of reference as newer as well as established media companies attempt to visualize the future of the entertainment industry. If this revolutionary digital paradigm shift presumed that old media would be increasingly replaced by new media, the convergence paradigm that is currently emerging suggests that new and old media would interact in more complex ways than previously predicted. The paradigm shift that followed the digital revolution assumed that new media was going to change everything. When the dot com market crashed, there was a tendency to imagine that nothing had changed. The real truth lay somewhere in between as there were so many aspects of the current media environment to take into consideration. Many industry leaders are increasingly reverting to media convergence as a way of making sense in an era of disorientating change. In that respect, media convergence in theory is essentially an old concept taking on a new meaning. Media convergence, in reality, is more than just a shift in technology. It alters relationships between industries, technologies, audiences, genres and markets. Media convergence changes the rationality media industries operate in, and the way that media consumers process news and entertainment. Media convergence is essentially a process and not an outcome, so no single black box controls the flow of media. With proliferation of different media channels and increasing portability of new telecommunications and computing technologies, we have entered into an era where media constantly surrounds us.[38]

Media convergence requires that media companies rethink existing assumptions about media from the consumer's point of view, as these affect marketing and programming decisions. Media producers must respond to newly empowered consumers. Conversely, it would seem that hardware is instead diverging whilst media content is converging. Media has developed into brands that can offer content in a number of forms. Two examples of this are Star Wars and The Matrix. Both are films, but are also books, video games, cartoons, and action figures. Branding encourages expansion of one concept, rather than the creation of new ideas.[39] In contrast, hardware has diversified to accommodate media convergence. Hardware must be specific to each function. While most scholars argue that the flow of cross-media is accelerating,[40] O'Donnell suggests, especially between films and video game, the semblance of media convergence is misunderstood by people outside of the media production industry. The conglomeration of media industry continues to sell the same story line in different media. For example, Batman is in comics, films, anime, and games. However, the data to create the image of batman in each media is created individually by different teams of creators. The same character and the same visual effect repetitively appear in different media is because of the synergy of media industry to make them similar as possible. In addition, convergence does not happen when the game of two different consoles is produced. No flows between two consoles because it is faster to create game from scratch for the industry.[41]

One of the more interesting new media journalism forms is virtual reality. Reuters, a major international news service, has created and staffed a news “island” in the popular online virtual reality environment Second Life (www.secondlife.com, accessed January 3, 2008). Open to anyone, Second Life has emerged as a compelling 3D virtual reality for millions of citizens around the world who have created avatars (virtual representations of themselves) to populate and live in an altered state where personal flight is a reality, altered egos can flourish, and real money (US$1,296,257 were spent during the 24 hours concluding at 10:19 a.m. eastern time January 7, 2008) can be made without ever setting foot into the real world. The Reuters Island in Second Life is a virtual version of the Reuters real-world news service but covering the domain of Second Life for the citizens of Second Life (numbering 11,807,742 residents as of January 5, 2008).[42]

Media convergence in the digital era means the changes that are taking place with older forms of media and media companies. Media convergence has two roles, the first is the technological merging of different media channels – for example, magazines, radio programs, TV shows, and movies, now are available on the Internet through laptops, iPads, and smartphones. As discussed in Media Culture (by Campbell), convergence of technology is not new. It has been going on since the late 1920s. An example is RCA, the Radio Corporation of America, which purchased Victor Talking Machine Company and introduced machines that could receive radio and play recorded music. Next came the TV, and radio lost some of its appeal as people started watching television, which has both talking and music as well as visuals. As technology advances, convergence of media change to keep up. The second definition of media convergence Campbell discusses is cross-platform by media companies. This usually involves consolidating various media holdings, such as cable, phone, television (over the air, satellite, cable) and Internet access under one corporate umbrella. This is not for the consumer to have more media choices, this is for the benefit of the company to cut down on costs and maximize its profits.[43] As stated in the article, Convergence Culture and Media Work, by Mark Deuze, “the convergence of production and consumption of media across companies, channels, genres, and technologies is an expression of the convergence of all aspects of everyday life: work and play, the local and the global, self and social identity."[44]

Convergence culture[edit]

Henry Jenkins determines convergence culture to be the flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences who will go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they want. The convergence culture is an important factor in transmedia storytelling. Convergence culture introduces new stories and arguments from one form of media into many. Transmedia storytelling is defined by Jenkins as a process "where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience. Ideally, each medium makes its own unique contribution to the unfolding of the story".[45] For instance, The Matrix starts as a film, which is followed by two other instalments, but in a convergence culture it is not constrained to that form. It becomes a story not only told in the movies but in animated shorts, video games and comic books, three different media platforms. Online, a wiki is created to keep track of the story's expanding canon. Fan films, discussion forums, and social media pages also form, expanding The Matrix to different online platforms. Convergence culture took what started as a film and expanded it across almost every type of media.[46]Bert is Evil (images) Bert and Bin Laden appeared in CNN coverage of anti-American protest following September 11. The association of Bert and Bin Laden links back to the Ignacio's Photoshop project for fun.[47][page needed]

Convergence culture is a part of participatory culture. Because average people can now access their interests on many types of media they can also have more of a say. Fans and consumers are able to participate in the creation and circulation of new content. Some companies take advantage of this and search for feedback from their customers through social media and sharing sites such as YouTube. Besides marketing and entertainment, convergence culture has also affected the way we interact with news and information. We can access news on multiple levels of media from the radio, TV, newspapers, and the internet. The internet allows more people to be able to report the news through independent broadcasts and therefore allows a multitude of perspectives to be put forward and accessed by people in many different areas. Convergence allows news to be gathered on a much larger scale. For instance, photographs were taken of torture at Abu Ghraib. These photos were shared and eventually posted on the internet. This led to the breaking of a news story in newspapers, on TV, and the internet.[46]

Media scholar Henry Jenkins has described the media convergence with participatory culture as:

...a "catalyst" for amateur digital film-making and what this case study suggests about the future directions popular culture may take. Star Wars fan films represent the intersection of two significant cultural trends—the corporate movement towards media convergence and the unleashing of significant new tools, which enable the grassroots archiving, annotation, appropriation, and recirculation of media content. These fan films build on long-standing practices of the fan community but they also reflect the influence of this changed technological environment that has dramatically lowered the costs of film production and distribution.[48]

Cell phone convergence[edit]

The social function of the cell phone changes as the technology converges. Because of technological advancement, cell phones function more than just as a phone. They contain an internet connection, video players, MP3 players, gaming, and a camera. Another example, Rok Sako To Rok Lo (2004) was screened in Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai, and other part of India through EDGE-enabled mobile phones with live video streaming facility.[47][page needed]

Social movements[edit]

The integration of social movements in cyberspace is one of the potential strategies that social movements can use in the age of media convergence. Because of the neutrality of the internet and the end-to-end design, the power structure of the internet was designed to avoid discrimination between applications. Mexico's Zapatistas campaign for land rights was one of the most influential case in the information age; Manuel Castells defines the Zapatistas as "the first informational guerrilla movement".[49] The Zapatista uprising had been marginalized by the popular press. The Zapatistas were able to construct a grassroots, decentralized social movement by using the internet. The Zapatistas Effect, observed by Cleaver,[50] continues to organize social movements on a global scale. A sophisticated webmetric analysis, which maps the links between different websites and seeks to identify important nodal points in a network, demonstrates that the Zapatistas cause binds together hundreds of global NGOs.[51] The majority of the social movement organized by Zapatistas targets their campaign especially against global neoliberalism.[52] A successful social movement not only need online support but also protest on the street. Papic wrote, "Social Media Alone Do Not Instigate Revolutions", which discusses how the use of social media in social movements needs good organization both online and offline.[53] A study, "Journalism in the age of media convergence: a survey of undergraduates’ technology-related news habits", concluded that several focus group respondents reported they generally did not actively engage in media convergence, such as viewing slide shows or listening to podcast that accompanied an online story, as part of their Web-based news consumption, a significant number of students indicated the interactive features often associated with online news and media convergence were indeed appealing to them.[54]

Examples in Regulation[edit]

Example: VoIP[edit]

The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has not been able to decide how to regulate VoIP (Internet Telephony) because the convergent technology is still growing and changing. In addition to its growth, FCC is tentative to set regulation on VoIP in order to promote competition in the telecommunication industry.[55] There is not a clear line between telecommunication service and the information service because of the growth of the new convergent media. Historically, telecommunication is subject to state regulation. The state of California concerned about the increasing popularity of internet telephony will eventually obliterate funding for the Universal Service Fund[56] Some states attempt to assert their traditional role of common carrier oversight onto this new technology.[57] Meisel and Needles (2005) suggests that the FCC, federal courts, and state regulatory bodies on access line charges will directly impact the speed in which Internet telephony market grows.[58] On one hand, the FCC is hesitant to regulate convergent technology because VoIP with different feature from the old Telecommunication; no fixed model to build legislature yet. On the other hand, the regulations is needed because Service over the internet might be quickly replaced telecommunication service, which will affect the entire economy.

Convergence has also raised several debates about classification of certain telecommunications services. As the lines between data transmission, and voice and media transmission are eroded, regulators are faced with the task of how best to classify the converging segments of the telecommunication sector. Traditionally, telecommunication regulation has focused on the operation of physical infrastructure, networks, and access to network. No content is regulated in the telecommunication because the content is considered private. In contrast, film and Television are regulated by contents. The rating system regulates its distribution to the audience. Self-regulation is promoted by the industry. Bogle senior persuaded the entire industry to pay 0.1 percent levy on all advertising and the money was used to give authority to the Advertising Standards Authority, which keeps the government away from setting legislature in the media industry.[59]

The premises to regulate the new media, two-ways communications, concerns much about the change from old media to new media. Each medium has different features and characteristics. First, internet, the new medium, manipulates all form of information - voice, data and video. Second, the old regulation on the old media, such as radio and Television, emphasized its regulation on the scarcity of the channels. Internet, on the other hand, has the limitless capacity, due to the end-to-end design. Third, Two-ways communication encourages interactivity between the content producers and the audiences. "...Fundamental basis for classification, therefore, is to consider the need for regulation in terms of either market failure or in the public interests"(Blackman).[60] The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), founded in 1990, is a non profit organization to defend free speech, privacy, innovation and consumer rights.[61] DMCA, Digital Millennium Copyright Act regulates and protect the digital content producers and consumers.[citation needed]

Emerging trends in communications[edit]

Network neutrality has emerged as an issue. Wu and Lessig (2004) set out two reasons to adapt neutral network model for computer networks. First, "a neutral network eliminates the risk of future discrimination, providing more incentive to invest in broadband application development." Second, "neutral network facilitates fair competition among application, no bias between applications."[62] The two reasons also coincide with FCC's interest to stimulate investment and enhance innovation in broadband technology and services.[63][64] Despite regulatory efforts of deregulation, privatization, and liberalization, the infrastructure barrier has been a negative factor in achieving effective competition. "Kim et al. argues that IP dissociates the telephony application from the infrastructure and Internet telephony is at the forefront of such dissociation."[65] The neutrality of the network is very important for fair competition.[66] As the former FCC Charman Michael Powell put it: "From its inception, the Internet was designed, as those present during the course of its creating will tell you, to prevent government or a corporation or anyone else from controlling it. It was designed to defeat discrimination against users, ideas and technologies".[67] Because of these reasons, Shin concludes that regulator should make sure to regulate application and infrastructure separately.

The layered model was first proposed by Solum and Chug, Sicker, and Nakahata. Sicker, Warbach and Witt have supported using a layered model to regulate the telecommunications industry with the emergence of convergence services. Many researchers have different layered approach, but they all agree that the emergence of convergent technology will create challenges and ambiguities for regulations.[13] The key point of the layered model is that it reflects the reality of network architecture, and current business model.[68] The layered Model consists of 1. Access Layer - where the physical infrastructure resides: copper wires, cable, or fiber optic. 2. transport layer - the provider of service. 3. Application layer - the interface between the data and the users. 4. content layer - the layer which users see.[68] In Convergence Technologies and the Layered Policy Model: Implication for Regulating Future Communications, Shin combines the Layered Model and Network Neutrality as the principle to regulate the future convergent Media Industry.[69]

Example: Messaging[edit]

Combination services include those that integrate SMS with voice, such as voice SMS. Providers include Bubble Motion, Jott, Kirusa, and SpinVox. Several operators have launched services that combine SMS with mobile instant messaging (MIM) and presence. Text-to-landline services also exist, where subscribers can send text messages to any landline phone and are charged at standard rates. The text messages are converted into spoken language. This service has been popular in America, where fixed and mobile numbers are similar. Inbound SMS has been converging to enable reception of different formats (SMS, voice, MMS, etc.). UK companies, including consumer goods companies and media giants, should soon[when?] be able to let consumers contact them via voice, SMS, MMS, IVR, or video using one five-digit number or long number. In April 2008, O2 UK launched voice-enabled shortcodes, adding voice functionality to the five-digit codes already used for SMS. This type of convergence is helpful for media companies, broadcasters, enterprises, call centres and help desks who need to develop a consistent contact strategy with the consumer. Because SMS is very popular today, it became relevant to include text messaging as a contact possibility for consumers. To avoid having multiple numbers (one for voice calls, another one for SMS), a simple way is to merge the reception of both formats under one number. This means that a consumer can text or call one number and be sure that the message will be received.

Example: Mobile[edit]

"Mobile service provisions" refers not only to the ability to purchase mobile phone services, but the ability to wirelessly access everything: voice, Internet, audio, and video. Advancements in WiMAX and other leading edge technologies provide the ability to transfer information over a wireless link at a variety of speeds, distances, and non-line-of-sight conditions.

Example: Multi-play in telecommunications[edit]

Multi-play is a marketing term describing the provision of different telecommunication services, such as Internet access, television, telephone, and mobile phone service, by organisations that traditionally only offered one or two of these services. Multi-play is a catch-all phrase; usually, the terms triple play (voice, video and data) or quadruple play (voice, video, data and wireless) are used to describe a more specific meaning. A dual play service is a marketing term for the provisioning of the two services: it can be high-speed Internet (digital subscriber line) and telephone service over a single broadband connection in the case of phone companies, or high-speed Internet (cable modem) and TV service over a single broadband connection in the case of cable TV companies. The convergence can also concern the underlying communication infrastructure. An example of this is a triple play service, where communication services are packaged allowing consumers to purchase TV, Internet, and telephony in one subscription. The broadband cable market is transforming as pay-TV providers move aggressively into what was once considered the telco space. Meanwhile, customer expectations have risen as consumer and business customers alike seek rich content, multi-use devices, networked products and converged services including on-demand video, digital TV, high speed Internet, VoIP, and wireless applications. It is uncharted territory for most broadband companies.

A quadruple play service combines the triple play service of broadband Internet access, television, and telephone with wireless service provisions.[70] This service set is also sometimes humorously referred to as "The Fantastic Four" or "Grand Slam".[71] A fundamental aspect of the quadruple play is not only the long-awaited broadband convergence but also the players involved. Many of them, from the largest global service providers to whom we connect today via wires and cables to the smallest of startup service providers are interested. Opportunities are attractive: the big three telecom services – telephony, cable television, and wireless—could combine their industries. In the UK, the merger of NTL:Telewest and Virgin Mobile resulted in a company offering a quadruple play of cable television, broadband Internet, home telephone, and mobile telephone services.

Example: Home network[edit]

Early in the 21st century, home LAN convergence so rapidly integrated home routers, wireless access points, and DSL modems that users were hard put to identify the resulting box they used to connect their computers to their Internet service. A general term for such a combined device is a residential gateway.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Roco, MC (2002). "'Coherence and divergence of megatrends in science and engineering". J Nanopart Res. 4: 9–19. 
  2. ^Bainbridge, W.S.; Roco, M.C. (2016). "'Science and technology convergence: with emphasis for nanotechnology-inspired convergence". J. Nanopart Res. 18: 211. doi:10.1007/s11051-016-3520-0. 
  3. ^Siddhartha, 2
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A converged mechanical tool, the multitool. Within one device, it provides many tools.
Example of convergent devices, 2010s-era smartphones, which can be used for phone calls, text messages, email, surfing the Internet, watching digital videos, paying bills online and so on.

Meikel and Young (1991) states that media convergence refers to the coming together of things that were previously separated (p.2) Everyday use of digital media (p.3). There are some new ways of using media such as creating. Media convergence has become an important element for life for many individuals. In the making of technology such as mobile phones, televisions and the internet individuals have a larger choice in media as media technologies have made most things even simpler. On the other hand, there is one question that is needed to be asked. The question is whether media convergence offers great challenges and opportunities to the society and to the industry itself or not? This paper is going to be about the public service broadcasting and why media convergence makes it more vital than ever before. And also,how the two market models 1)public sphere model and the 2)commercial model and how they both function.
Scannell and Cardiff(1991)states that broadcasting offers interest and relaxation to many shelters where things and exclusive. Besides that, it offers information on thousands of topics to great amounts of people who will be able to gain more interests in upcoming events which mainly outside their ken. However, after a short period of time being in that particular position to actually make decisions on matters and issues whether to receive other people’s opinion or either ignore them. The Australian public service broadcasting (PSB) sector mainly accommodates the television, online services and radio of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and also the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS). The concept was originated in Britain the 1920s that is when BBC was founded. The first General of the BBC whom was John Reith created a philosophy for PSB which deeply impacted how broadcasting in the ‘dominions’ (Canada, Australia, South, Africa and New Zealand). According to Reith, broadcasting was importantly a ‘public service’ which mainly would act as the ‘educative, moral and cultural force for the advancement of taste, manners and knowledge’. (Scannell & Cardiff 1991, p.7). In addition, it had the political and social function of assimilating the nation and enlightened democracy. In 1924, the Skyes Committee had made a recommendation on how broadcasting should be all organised in Britain and also saw the ‘wavebands available in any other country’ as a ‘valuable form of public property’ which must be operated only to the ‘public interest’. The BBC was set up as an independent authority which was established by the Royal Charter and it is funded by a licence fee which was paid by every single household which owned receiving equipment. It was a license fee funded monopoly that broadcasting could function as a public service free of both political pressure and commercial. Debate about the function and the role of public service broadcasting has been mainly constant those early days. This concept has changed and evolved as the broadcasting landscape has transformed. The concept was also transplanted from Britain to every part of the world. Besides that, it also adapted to many various purposes into the new environment. For instance, in South Africa, the South African Broadcasting Corporation(SABC) was created after the BBC. By the end of 1940s it became a part of Apartheid which was wileded by the white power bloc whom serviced the reinforcing their ascendancy(Beer and Steyn 1993,pp 212-14). Rethian’s version of PSB mainly served a democratising purpose in two particular ways. First of all, it was to provide all access to the greatest aspects of culture for the whole population. It was just not for an elite who could actually afford them. Secondly,its all about ‘improving’ mission. It is a section of the whole community seen as actually needing special kids of education,cultural development and remediation. For instance, women and the regions and children whom were catered for programs especially when it is desgined to address them. In 1980, the Broadcasting Review Company in London created a series of ‘principles’ of the public service broadcasting. They are as follows 1)universality of availability 2)provision of minorities 3)university of appeal 4)a commitment to the education of the public 5)distance from vested interests 6)structured to encourage competition in programming standards not for audience, 7)freedom for the program maker and lastly 8)fostering a public sphere. These principles embedded all programmatically in ‘ABC’. On the other hand, the case for the SBS is a little bit different as it has mainly focused so much upon the second principle which is listed above. The question is to what extent SBS is in fact a PSB. The solution is: while SBS does not have the national public sphere mission of the ABC, it greatly enhances the public sphere in two ways. Firstly,providing recent current affairs perspectives and different news. In addition, this adds up to the views that are obviously available in the current process of public debate. Secondly,it must be seen as a great part of a governmental use for the creation of a multicultural society in Australia. Furthermore, it addresses Australians as citizens of a wonderful multicultural society and also aid them to tolerating and understanding the difference. There are two types of market models. The first model is the public sphere model. For people to act as citizens which requires: access to information,advice and personal rights. Besides that, they also need access to the broadest range of information,interpretation and debate on areas of public political choices. Other than that, they need to recognise themselves in representations to ensure that citizens are prepared for public life. Furthremore, the public sphere model is essential to a healthy democracy. The model argues that the needs of a society cannot be met through the market as it is based on consumer purchasing power. In this model,the government has a vital role in ensuring the media meets the demands of citizens. Besides that, it is funded by Government Tax funded. Moreover, the media is conceived as a source of information and storytelling. The concept of this market model is associated with Jurgen Habermas and the concept implies that the media allows spaces for public dialogue and that democracy relies on citizens participation. An example of a public sphere model is SBS and ABC. And most of all it is free. Scannell(1989:163-164) stated that PSB despite its ‘fundamentally democratic thrust’ it is made available to to everyone of public life and also the universe of discourse. The main purpose was to introduce social equality in order to access information. This model has been based on an unequal relations between broadcasters and also the audience. In this model of representative communicative democracy, ‘power is mainly accured to the representatives not to those that they represent’. Ytreberg(2002)mentions that there are four main types of self representation of PSB which are the bureaucrats,charamatics and the paternalist and the avant gardists. Neither one of these types assume anything than an institution apart from the audience to which seeks legitimation in terms of the content which is going to delivered to the audience. Scannell(p.27) commented that ‘the sense that BBC is part of the world of ‘them’ rather than ‘us’ ‘ a world that belongs to somewheher else when listeners and viewers have persisted until this day. The News Corporation’s move into the net and to other new media . It is the News Corporation’s legacy business that will determine whether the company will adapt to a new environment for the media industry. This is also wht Mr Murdoch need to focuse on making money from films,newspaper and televisions and also his new web communities.(The Economist,Jan.19th 2006). The SBS amendent bill was just introduced in the Parliament today. If passed,this law will see doubling of ads and commercials breaks on our SBS effectively turning it into Australia’s fourth fully commerical TV channel. Why is this bad? Because the SBS was never intended to be a fully commercial TV channel.Increased advertising will restrict the broadcaster will restrict the broadcaster from meeting its Charter obligiations and his Coalition Government established the SBS on the back of the Whitlam Labor Governments iniative to address a gap in services for an increasingly diverse community.Furthermore, commercialisation of our SBS will see the needs of the advertiser put beofre the needs of the community. While, ABC’s Mark Scott defends against’group think’ attacks.y the OZ 2011′ ABC not for profit but public good ‘ a form for debate . It must adapt to neoliberalism(technology/globalized content powered audiences) Media depends on adversiting vulnerable. Therefore, audiences require more up to the minute quality content on more platforms. ‘We need to be content driven and audience-centric across all our platforms’. Laerger more acessible audience for news needs platforms to graw an audience. However,the content is mainly electronic now. ABC News are popular. These days, people are reading more in vast numbers and detail analysis of reporting.The other model is the commercial model. It addresses audiences as individual consumers, profit and it is a form of representation. It is used as a fundraising advertiser. An example of this could be Channel 7 and 10. This model fulfills charter of diversity and it is vulnerable to the government. The theory of neolibralism which are costs to public function,deregulation ‘ rules and policies around media have been changed which benefits large cooperation and also increasing in privitisation. Morever, the media convergence and the internet has been the main points of the need to actually rethink media regulation. Flew(2011)states that many series of drivers of some change in the media environment and new approaches to media policy which is associated with globalization. Other than that, media content can rise and it can be accessed acrossed multiple devices. For instance, smart phones,tablet PCs and also ‘smart television’s.All of these changes were seen as a shift from the mass communication in the 20th century towards a convergent social media paradigm. Doyle(2002) and Picard(2011) mentions that industry regulations and standards were transforming from the centrality of the broadcast(medium)to public communication and also the concerns about the risks to people from exposure to harmful media content. Flew(2008)states that convergence means ‘the interlinking of computing and ICTs,media content and communication networks that has occurred with popularisation and developement of the internet and the services,activities and convergent products have emerged in the digital media space’. Meikel and Young(2011) stated that convergence can be understood in four dimensions. Firstly,technologically ‘ the combination of communications,content and computing around networked digital platform(media). Secondly,industrial ‘ the great engagement of the established media companies in the digital media space and also the increase of digitally based companies such as Apple,Microsoft ,Google and others as important media content providers. Thirdly, social- the increase of social network media and also the Web 2.0 services such as Twitter, Youtube and Facebook and also the growth of user created content. Lastly, textual ‘ the remixing and the reuse of media into who has been called ‘transmedia’ mode where media content and stories for instance, images,written texts and sounds are mainly dispersed across many media platforms. As Jakubowicz(1993)states that ‘we must not fall pray to the na??ve belief prevalent at one time in the democratization of communication discourse’. He states that people were poorly served by existing radio systems which includes trade unionsts,minorities, the blind and even women. Patridge(1982) states that ‘given half a chance,might also become broadcasters in their own right’ . It does not mean that everyone will become a professional. Stark(2006)pointed out that ‘the age of the superstar is set to decline’. When more individuals have more access to culture that interests them it is most likely that they will not get towards the same megastars’. In the past 50 years, culture in the western countries has been filtired by a few main corporate entities. ‘ The digital cultural revolution’ enables us to forgot all these filters and also seek out more of what we fancy or even enable us to actually discover what we enjoy but will never know about it’.Media has a central role in democracy for instance liberal and types of programming. Media in democratic socities are expected to serve the public interest and therefore promote diversity and avoid homogeneity, potray a diversity of experiences and ideas in a given society.
In conclusion,convergence is not what is actually was or what individuals though it was. Think instead,cross-media,multimedia,new media and transmedia. We call it whatever we want to call it. Media is not just a product. It is supposed to be usd by consumers but a resource for citizens for education,intergration and information and most of all to participate in public life. Media offers a window into history and experiences of others.

References:
Com 2005 ‘Don’t write off Hollywood and the big media groups just yet’ The Economist 10 Jan 2006
Flew,T 2011 ‘ New Media Policies’ In Managing Media Work, edited by Mark Deuze,59-72. Los Angeles,NSW
Flew,T 2008 New Media: An Introduction. Melbourne,Oxford University Press
Flew,T and Swift, A 2013,’Regulating Journalists? The Finkelstein Review,the Convergence Review and News Media Regulation in Australia ‘Journal of Applied Journalism and Media Studies vol 2 no.1
Jacka,E 1920. The future of public broadcasting Chapter 20 pp 344-347
Meikel,G and Young,S,2011. ‘Regulating Communications Media: From the Discretion of Sound Chaps to the Arguments of Lawyers’ In Public Communication:The New Imperatives,edited by Majorie Ferguson pp40-60. London, Sage
Patridge,S 1982. Not the BBC/IBA: The Case for community Radio. London,Comedia
Picard,R.2011 ‘Economic Approaches to Media Policy’ In The Handbook of Global Media and Communication Policy edited by Mansell,R and Raboy,M pp355-365 Malden,MA
Scannell,P 1989 Public service broadcasting and modern public life, Media,Culture and Society vol 2 pp134-166
Scannell,P 1989 Britain:Public Service Broadcasting from national culture to multiculturalism. Luton,John Libbey Media
Stark,E 2006 Free culture and the internet: A new semiotic democracy.
Ytreberg,E 2002 Ideal types in public servicea

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