Effects on those who were stolen
Members of the Stolen Generations often suffer from a range of problems.
Searching for family. Aboriginal people of the Stolen Generations are still looking for their families . This personal ad also documents that children were taken until the late 1970s.
- Low self esteem and feelings of worthlessness.
- Loss of identity. Carol Kendall’s thoughts reflect both the positive and negative side of not being told one’s identity: “When I was told I was Koori… I felt wonderful because this was the first information I had about who I was, me the real person, and I was Koori. I also felt frightened too because my skin was fair and I thought I wouldn’t be accepted by other Koories.” 
I have no identity really.—Cynthia Sariago, daughter of a stolen woman 
- Poorer education. Because they were brought up to be servants or labourers, members of the Stolen Generations often received a poorer education and are more likely to be unemployed. 
- Legal problems. Aboriginal ex-footballer Sydney Jackson’s “exact age cannot be guaranteed” because “no reference to the birth of Sydney Jackson can be found”. His birthday was “simply assumed” to be July 1, 1944 . As a consequence people like Syd have problems applying for legal documents such as passports.
- Mistrusting everyone. Aboriginal elder Prof Lowitja O’Donhoghue for example has a tendency to hold something of herself back from everyone but a selected few . Having been brought up in an institution she never had a family in the traditional sense. Others became so paranoid that they didn’t allow their family members to take food or gifts from people, because they thought these would be laced with poison, which actually happened when they were young. 
- Not visiting medical services. Aboriginal families expecting a child avoid seeking help to deliver their baby because they deeply distrust health services that continue to take children. “I still see families who don’t come to services because they are terrified they won’t get to take their baby home,” says midwife Vanessa Smith, from the Woronora nation. Nurses and midwives had been integral to the policies that created the Stolen Generations. 
- Difficulties to find their religious beliefs, because often they have been brought to many different missions where they were exposed to various denominations. Others feel a strong indoctrination of the belief system they learned.
Many traditionally oriented people don’t know their totems which govern many aspects of their lives, for example whom they can marry.
I used to be so frightened of hell, or burning forever.—Barbara Cummings, Aboriginal health worker and Stolen Generations member 
- Internal guilt because Stolen Generation members often blame their mothers and fathers for not loving and caring for them, based on incorrect or sparse information supplied by foster parents and government institutions. Many ultimately find out that their parents never stopped trying to reunite with them .
- Anguish of searching for their identity. For some, when they are reunited with a parent after many years (sometimes decades), the reunion turns into another perceived hurt and rejection when they find they cannot, or the parent does not want to, bond with them.
I met my mother for the first time when I was in my 30s, and it was sad because too much time had passed, and it was hard to make a connection.—Aunty Maria Starsevik, taken aged two 
I didn't see my mother again until I was 35.—Brian Morley, taken aged two 
Too much water had passed under the bridge. We became mother and daughter years too late.—Elaine Randall 
The Search BeginsThey had taken away my family! The child within me cried, The stolen life, the agony Of many a year gone by. The cover up; the pretence. The falsehood: All those lies. Didn't they know I'd find out the truth one day, And now I just ask WHY? All their words and all their kindness Can never fill the pain. Can I ever trust the people, That I believed in, once again? The stole me from a lifetime, My heritage. My home. My family. My identity. My spirit all alone. But to let them win, would be a sin. To give up would be a crime. I must search on. I must fight on. To find what is rightfully mine. To find my heritage; my family. My home and identity. To find the person who was lost to me. Me… the Aborigine!
Poem by Pauline McLeod .
Substance and alcohol abuse. “Most girls became depressed, suicidal and addicted to drugs and alcohol later in life,” says Christina Green who was sent to the Parramatta Girls Home in 1970 for running away from her abusive foster parents .
Our [bad] health is a legacy of our childhood.—Christina Green, former Parramatta Girls Home inmate 
Depression and other mental illnesses. Members of the Stolen Generations have over double the rate of mental illness than other Aboriginal Australians. 
Many boys were told that their mother or their father (quite often both) was dead, when in fact they were alive. Being told this news caused many to suffer severe depression… Some boys lost all hope and just wanted to die.—Bill Simon, taken away aged 10 
I was hurting and had found no way of safely healing the pain. So I turned the pain, anger, resentment and bitterness inwards and did what so many of us do, which is to punish and hurt ourselves. Despite being loved, I choose to suffer from days of depression and I couldn't see any hope in the future.—Joy Makepeace, taken away aged less than a year old 
Difficulties parenting or filling any communal role. “As a child I had no mother’s arms to hold me. No father to lead me into the world… We had few ideas about relationships. No-one showed us how to be lovers or parents.”  They are unable to show love to their families and lost the ability to accept the love of their children, often because they are frightened to accept love.  Consequently many relationships of members of the Stolen Generations fail, dragging their children into a vicious cycle of foster parents. It is vital, therefore, to find family members for children in care or a new Stolen Generation grows up not knowing their parents. Afraid of being judged unfit parents, they are not seeking support for any of their problems. 
We never heard the words 'I love you', so we never learned to say them to our family… or feel them. We became empty vessels, out of touch with our feelings.—Sharyn Egan, member of the Stolen Generations 
My mother did not bond with her mother and I did not bond with mine.—Barbara Cummings, member of the Stolen Generations 
We kept coming across a pattern of Stolen Generation members whose children, then grandchildren and even their great-grandchildren had ended up in care.—Glendra Stubbs, CEO Link-Up 
Short family tree. Many Aboriginal people in rural and urban areas can’t go further than two generations into their Aboriginal family tree . Consequently they do not know where to go to seek support for anything; they no longer belong to a community, hold no memories of belonging to one and are not able to draw on the strengths of a community to help them. 
A lot of us have lost our immediate family, so the girls from [children's home] Cootamundra are my family.—Elaine Randall 
Unable to manage relationships because they have never had a role model to learn from. Many relationships are violent and abusive (many abused become abusers).
He witnessed and suffered abuse that left emotional and physical scars so deep they would have a lasting impact on his life and all his relationships.—Bill Simon, taken aged ten 
Intergenerational traumas: Parents pass their traumas on to their children. “We need to recognise that the impact on the Stolen Generations has transferred from one generation to the next,” says Richard Westen, CEO of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Healing Foundation . Families and children are impacted with “the same trauma, grief and loss”.
A Western Australian child research survey showed “beyond doubt” the collective harm of being raised in a household affected by forcible removals . 40% of Aboriginal children aged 0-18 are raised in a household where either a parent or a grandparent has been forcibly removed.
The fear I carry and the aversion I feel towards governmental departments is due entirely to inter-generational trauma. My mother carries this fear, my grandmother carried this fear, my great-grandmother carried this fear.—Kelly Briggs, Aboriginal mother 
I know families who, if they see a stranger walk in their front yard, all run to the back of the house--grandmother, mother, son and grandson.—Kim Hill, CEO Northern Land Council and former ATSIC Commissioner 
- Criminal offences which bring them to the attention of police and courts. In 1995, one in 10 Aboriginal people over 24 had been taken away from their families as children, and this group experienced far higher arrest rates . A study found that 80% of Aboriginal prisoners in NSW were affected by the removal policies .
Abuse which can be physical, emotional, sexual or of substances.
I was given the first hug of my life in a women's environment which I didn't know anything about… It tore me apart because not understanding what a hug is, and to be given that all of a sudden by someone, you suddenly realise someone cared about you, but it wasn't that. It was abuse, as a 12-year-old.—Elder Mary Terszak, member of the Stolen Generations 
Violence which can be domestic or intrinsic (leading to suicide). Mothers of the Stolen Generations living in remote areas are 3 times more likely to experience violence than other Aboriginal mothers . They stay longer in violent relationships because they cannot bear their families being broken up again and their children growing up without a mother or a father.  Due to the limited focus on healing the relationship between Stolen Generations and their communities there is more lateral violence resulting in increasing isolation. 
43 of the 99 people whose deaths in custody were investigated in the Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody had been separated from their natural families as children .
Simon recounts…the time he first tasted alcohol, and how that, and later on harder drugs, worked to numb him of the blinding rage and violence he felt.—Bill Simon, taken aged ten 
Loss of cultural affiliation. Since they were often denied any traditional knowledge, many Stolen Generations members find it difficult to take a role in the cultural and spiritual life of their Aboriginal communities. “I don’t know nothing about my culture. I don’t know nothing about the land and the language,” says Cynthia Sariago whose mother passed away. “It’s hard going back [to your home country] because you’re not really accepted by your mother’s traditional people.” 
This is particularly true when someone who was removed has grown up overseas and taken on the accent of that country. “When she speaks it floors people to hear the different accents, and it’s another barrier to reconnecting,” says Gillian Brannigan, national co-ordinator for the National Stolen Generations Alliance .
I can remember when I was 16 and a big group of Aboriginals were walking towards me and I was terrified. I was green as grass. You had no knowledge of the outside world. All you was taught was house keeping.—Iris Clayton, Stolen Generations member 
- Deep distrust of government, police and officials which continues to shape community relationships to these bodies.
Loss of language: “Many of us eventually lost our language… When some of us finally met our parents, it was almost impossible to bridge the language and culture gap.”, says Uncle George Tongerie, who had been placed in Colebrook Home at Quorn, SA .
Lee Nangala, 46, daughter of a member of the Stolen Generations recalls: “I remember saying over and over again to Mum, ‘...How come we don’t have a language, Mum?... Mum, where do I come from?’” 
- Loss of land. Not only can they sometimes not remember where their traditional land is, but in breaking the continuous practice of customs they are not entitled to claim native title over their land.
- Strangers to their family. Some siblings were put into the same institution without knowing the other kids were their siblings. They grew up to be strangers to their own family members, even later in life. 
- Chronic pain. Trauma and difficult childhood experiences primes the nervous system to interpret danger which can become part of the reasons for chronic pain. Many who suffer chronic pain had stressful, adversarial childhoods.
Many members of the Stolen Generations also had their wages stolen from them.
I suspect I'll carry these sorts of wounds 'til the day I die. I'd just like it not to be so intense, that's all. —Bringing Them Home - Community Guide, the effects
Effects on family members who were not stolen
Many parents, grandparents and family members never recovered from the distress of losing their children. Children who were not removed are still affected by the removal of their brothers and sisters.
Aunty Maureen Silleri has experienced this and can tell you best how it was like :
“My god you look like mum”
Maureen Silleri remembers what happened when her separated sisters and brothers came home.
“I was in about sixth class… and I came home and there was a young girl sitting in the chair. I walked in and looked at her and Mum said that’s your sister. There was three of us left at home and six were taken away.
I sort of looked at her and thought ‘my god, you look like Mum’ and I kept staring at her thinking that she looked so much like Mum.
It was like I knew they existed and I knew they were around but to me they were strangers. So to me it was like getting to know them all over again.”
When these siblings were talking about their experiences in institutions Maureen felt left out.
“I feel like they’re on the inside and I’m on the outside. I know I can’t experience what they have been through or have any idea of what it was like. I can’t really relate to what happened back then.”
Effects on birth parents
In hospitals it was often simply assumed by the staff that the baby would be taken from the mother soon after birth. No-one thought about what the birth mother or the birth father was feeling .
Usually no encouragement or support was given to the birth mother to keep her child. On the contrary, mothers were forced to give up their child.
Many stories about the Stolen Generations are testimony to how very deeply mothers suffered because their children were forcibly taken from them.
Fathers took to alcohol after some, and sometimes all, of their children were taken because they had “nothing to live for”. 
Some are unable to tell if their child was a boy or a girl, because a pillow was used as a barrier in the delivery room so that mothers could not even get a glimpse of their newborn child or make any form of maternal contact .
The PillowThey'd placed a pillow at my face to shield you from my view They didn't care nor realise that nothing they would do Could ever ease the pain I'd feel in ever losing you. A lifetime's passed, they've lied to me They promised I'd forget But as I lie awake at night A victim of their theft There's no-one I can turn to To help me in my plight Except… another pillow I weep into every night.
Poem by Di Wellfare .
Birth fathers suffered too as they had often no say in what was to happen to their child.
They felt confused about the pregnancy, birth and relationship with the birth mother . In many cases they had no opportunity to deal with their emotions or feelings.
Digression: Effects of removal on children’s brains
The excellent book The Brain That Changes Itself explains what happens to a child which has been removed from their mother .
“For children to know and regulate their emotions, and be socially connected, they need to experience [various kinds of emotional] interaction many hundreds of times in the critical period [of brain development] and then to have it reinforced later in life.”
If a child is removed before or shortly after the critical period is completed other people need to take on the role of the mother. Stolen children rarely had others helping them to soothe themselves. They had to learn to “autoregulate” themselves by “turning off their emotions”, a devastating blow to creating lasting relationships.
Children who grow up without their caring mothers, in institutions where one nurse is responsible for a group of infants, “stop developing intellectually, are unable to control their emotions, and instead rock endlessly back and forth, or make strange hand movements. They also enter ‘turned-off’ states and are indifferent to the world, unresponsive to people who try to hold and comfort them. In photographs these infants have a haunting, faraway look in their eyes.” Compare this statement to the old newspaper photograph here. These children have given up all hope of finding their parents again.
Children suffering from early trauma release a stress hormone that kills cells in the hippocampus of the brain. This makes learning and long-term memory difficult and predisposes them to stress-related illnesses for the rest of their lives. “Trauma in infancy appears to lead to a supersensitisation” which can last into adulthood.
Growing up with ghosts
Children of parents who lost loved ones often ‘grow up with ghosts’, meaning that missing family members are psychologically present but physically absent . While the parents know exactly whom they lost, their children know very little of this part of their family history.
Parents worsen this problem by hiding their traumatic memories, names or photographs. When they die they leave unfillable gaps in the family’s history. “I didn’t want to bother you with some of the crap I had to put up with,” says for example the mother of Cathy Freeman . Cathy is an Aboriginal Olympic gold medalist.
Aboriginal people are not the only ones suffering from such a loss of relatives and loss of past. Children of Holocaust survivors share the same experiences .
I grew up knowing people 'I didn't know', mourning people I think were dead, but actually never knowing for sure. —Child of a Holocaust survivor 
The children of survivors of great family losses find themselves left with many questions, shame and sometimes an almost obsessive desire to fill in the blank spaces of their family’s past. This motivated Cathy Freeman in 2007 to sign up for a series aired by the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) television channel, ‘Who do you think you are’, and search for her heritage .
“I wanted to know more about where I came from and who I belong to because one’s history sets you on the right pathway for the future and makes you feel that bit more secure in the present,” she explained.
I can see how I am a reflection of my ancestors.—Cathy Freeman, Aboriginal Olympic gold medalist 
With this sentence Cathy explains how getting to know her ancestry helps her understand her own personality. Her search gives her a sense of purpose and helps her pass on a complete picture of her past to future generations: “It was important for me to know it so that I can share it with my children some day.”
A relative or descendant of one of the four million Jews or political prisoners that Hitler exterminated in his death camps stands a better chance of learning the fate of his relatives than an Aboriginal person trying to piece together his or her family history.—John Danalis in 'Riding The Black Cockatoo', comparing the extensive records Nazis kept about their victims to poor or non-existent records in Australia.
Lifelong search for family. Family members who only exist on paper can cause a lot of pain and stress. Source: 
Between the years 1909 and 1969 children were taken from their mothers/families at all times of day. Not just any child was taken, only children of Aboriginal status or children with a little bit of Aboriginal status, half caste. “It is estimated that between 50,000 to 100,000 Indigenous children were taken from their families…” (Lecture). The government had decided that the mothers/families that were Indigenous Aborigines were not fit for raising a family. The government wanted to breed out the Aboriginal people. From that they wanted to breed out all the Aboriginal people. These Aboriginal children were known as the Stolen Generation.
The Stolen Generation was where tens of thousands of children were taken throughout the day and put into orphanages and other homes. They were put to work and the government attempted to eliminate the Aboriginal people. They wanted to wipe out the Aboriginal race which wold only leave Whites. “Under the White Australia and assimilation policies Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who were ‘not full blood’ were encouraged to become assimilated into the broader society so that eventually there would be no more Indigenous people left. At the time Indigenous people were seen as the inferior race” (Stolen Generations…). Even though the Stolen Generation lasted many decades it consisted of four main situations: the removal of the children, the bringing them home along with the impact it had on their lives, and the national apology.
Throughout the Stolen Generation the removal of the Aboriginal children happened every night. Mothers and their families were horrified at every moment knowing that their children might be taken away forever. Some mothers hide their children when they heard the government was coming into town. Children were being taken away at all hours. The government would raid a house to take away their children in the middle of the night. Children of all ages were taken. After the children were taken away from their families the government took them to different orphanages. One wonders how a government could do such a thing. “The removal policy was managed by the Aborginies Protection Board (APB). The APB was a government board established in 1909 with the power to remove children without parental consent and without a court order.
Children could be put into an institution or mission dormitory, fostered or adopted” (Stolen Generation). Usually when the children were put into a children’s home when they were young would get adopted or fostered soon after. Some children were bought for work and became maids for the families; however, they got paid very little and never were commended for their hard work. According to the Australian government website the children were expected to work at a very young age, they were only entitled to retain a small proportion of their meagre earnings as pocket money (Sorry Day…). Aunty Gloria Smith was taken by the police when she was twelve years old. She was immediately sent to Sydney to work. She claims she will never forget the names of who she worked for, Mrs. and Mr. Slander and their two daughters. She was a maid for the house, but they never appreciated the work she would do for them. Aunty viewed it as slavery. She did not get paid for her work.
Her older sister came to help her escape and she never went back, even though the police tried to take her back. Aunty Gloria is just one of many cases. Each and every individual that had been part of the Stolen Generation has a different story, no two are alike. During this time the boys and girls had different roles. Boys were sent to places like the Kinchela Aboriginal Boys Home and girls were sent to places like the Cootamundra Home. In the boy’s home the boys were often beat and put into cages like animals. One story of an Kinchela Inmate was “The bashing that I copped from the from the manager. He was a so-called manager who was supposed to manage the place and to protect us” (Lecture). In the girls home it was a “…Domestic Training Home for Aboriginal girls. It was maintained by the Aborigines Welfare Board until 1968. The girls were not allowed to remain in any contact with their families, and were later sent to work as domestic servants” (Lecture). Children were taken away from their families and most never knew who their parents were. Most forgot/never knew about their culture.
In the 1990’s there was an national inquiry into removing the Aboriginal children. This was the start to the Bringing Them Home Report.
The report outlined the devastating impact the child removal policies had on the children and their families. It found that many of the institutions and homes in which the children were places were very cruel and sexual and physical abuse of the children was common. It found that many of the people who managed the removals, including both the government and churches, abused their power and breached their supposed obligation as protectors and ‘carers’…. The report found that the practice of forced removal was highly traumatic not only for the children but also for their families. The policy broke important cultural, spiritual and family ties which crippled not only individuals, but whole families and even whole communities.
The report found that members of the Stolen Generations suffered higher rates of sexual abuse, maltreatment, dislocations of family life, poverty and hardship than other Aboriginal people…. The aim of the policy was to ‘breed out’ the Aboriginal race. In international law practices designed to destroy an entire race of people are known as genocide, and are forbidden under the 1948 Convention of Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. While many records have been lost, it has been estimated that between 1 in 10 and 3 in 10 Aboriginal children were forcibly removed between 1910 and 1970 (Stolen Generations…). The report provided heaps of information which exploited that the government and home owners abused and mistreated these children. This report was a good source to showing that they truly have done wrong to these people. They are people to, just because they are a different race does not mean you can try to breed them out.
With the help of this report, children were realized of their duties. Most were not able to go back to their families. A few reasons for this is that they did not know their culture and/or history of where they have came from and it would have been hard going back. Everything that they have been created life long negative consequences. According to Aunt Gloria Smith lots of Aboriginals have the misfortune to not have been able to know their families and that she was one of the few lucky ones that knew her mother and father were. The negative impacts these people had on changed them forever.
After the Bringing Them Home Report came out many people asked for an official apology from the government. This is the least the government could do after admitting to mistreating the Indigenous people for many decades. Aboriginals also asked for a financial compensation along with the national apology. “…Conservative Prime Minister John Howard and his government resolutely refused to make a national apology. They denied that there had ever been a Stolen Generation, arguing that the children had been rescued from physical and moral danger and that their treatment was humane by standards of the times, and rejected any notion of generational responsibility for practices sanctioned by previous governments.
There would be no compensation payments” (Haebich) Even though the Prime Minister John Howard did not want to make the apology many Australians supported the national apology. However, “…the prime minister passed a ‘Statement of Regret and Motion of Reconciliation’ in parliament” instead of doing the apology (Stolen Generations…). After the Bringing Them Home Report and the denied national apology, national Sorry Day was put into place on 26 May 1998. This day brought huge celebrations and festivities. One thing that was Sorry Books. Sorry Books were there for people to write about their suffering and what had happened to them during the Stolen Generations. This day became an annual event that has marches every year with many speakers. Although, “ in 2005 the National Sorry Day Committee renamed Sorry Day as a National Day of Healing for all Australians:‘The Day will focus on the healing needed throughout Australian society if we are to achieve reconciliation” (Sorry Day…).
Ten years later after the former Prime Minister denied to apologize, a new government was elected. The new Prime Minister Kevin Rudd promised to make an national apology to the Indigenous people of the Stolen Generation. “At the first parliament, on 13 February 2008 the new Prime Minister Kevin Rudd issued a national apology to the Stolen Generations on behalf of the Australian Government” (Lecture). In part of Rudd’s apology he states “ we apologize especially for the removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children…For the pain, suffering and of these Stolen generations, their descendants and for their families left behind, we say sorry” (Lecture). When the apology took place it allowed for Australians to heal its past wounds.
The Stolen Generation has impacted every person in Australia, whether they were Indigenous or WhiteAustralians. These years a highly controversial era in Australia’s past. The Indigenous people had many hard times throughout
the past decades They had been mistreated for many years that the negative impacts that go along with it will last a lifetime. Aboriginal people have gone through a lot; however, some of the racism is still going on. They are still being mistreated by select few individuals that still can not fathom how todays society is giving remorse to these people, not hatred. They have suffered enough throughout the Stolen Generation they do not need any more. With learning about Australia’s past and what had happened to the Stolen Generation makes my heart drop.
The things they had to go through and the way Aboriginals were treated for over a hundred years makes me cringe. How could people do this to others? However, this same thing happened back in America. African Americans were treated as slaves, sold like cattle, and beat for no reason just like Indigenous people were in Australia. Researching about the Stolen Generation was not only a great way to learn about Australia’s history, but also to learn about the Indigenous people. I feel as if the apology was not enough, even though the government can not rewind what was done. The apology and admitting they have done wrong is a step in the right direction.
Haebich, A 2011, ‘FORGETTING INDIGENOUS HISTORIES: CASES FROM THE HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA’S STOLEN GENERATIONS’, Journal Of Social History, 44, 4, pp. 1033-1046, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 3 May 2013. References
Lecture Notes: Week 7-Stolen Generation
Sorry Day and the Stolen Generations – australia.gov.au. 2013. Sorry Day and the Stolen Generations – australia.gov.au. [ONLINE] Available at: http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/sorry-day-stolen-generations. [Accessed 10 May 2013].
Stolen Generations Fact Sheet. 2013. » Stolen Generations Fact Sheet. [ONLINE] Available at: http://reconciliaction.org.au/nsw/education-kit/stolen-generations/. [Accessed 10 May 2013].