It is difficult to find more modern topic for thoughts as global integration. There are many essays on globalization written by scientists, politicians, journalists, businesspersons, religious figures and people of art. Dozens of conferences and symposiums, hundreds of books and thousands of articles are dedicated to this occurrence. There are many approaches to the understanding of definition “globalization”. Some people think that it is natural process of integration of different cultures. Another people consider that it is new form of colonialism. The rest of the people agree with the fact that, humanity can freely promote world fund thanks to internationalization. It is also good question to determine advantages and disadvantages of such versatile process as global integration. However, let us look at first on definition of “globalization” or “internationalization”.
Definition and history of “globalization”
If we look in definition dictionary, we will see the description of word “global”. The definition of adjective “global” is relating to the whole world, entirely or comprehensive. According to different encyclopedias, we can formulate definition of process “internationalization” by own words as process of unification of all world spheres of life (political, economic, cultural) into one own system, which use all countries in the world. Now let us take an excursus to the history of globalization. First signs of it we can observe in ancient times. In particular, Roman Empire was one of the first states, which strengthened the domination on Mediterranean. It led to deep interlacement of different cultures and appearance of local division of labour in Mediterranean regions. The origins of global integration take part XVI and XVII centuries when sustainable economic growth in Europe, combined with advances in navigation and geographical discoveries. That’s why, Portuguese and Spanish traders spread all over the world and engaged in the colonization of America. In the XVII century Dutch East India Company, which traded with many Asian countries, has become the first genuine multinational company. In the XIX century, rapid industrialization has led to an increase in trade and investment between the European states and their colonies, and the United States of America. During this period, unfair trade with developing countries was in the nature of imperialist exploitation. In the first half of XX century process of global integration was interrupted by two world wars and share their period of economic downturn. After the Second World War, globalization resumed at an accelerated pace. It contributed to the advancement in technology, which led to rapid sea, rail and air transport, as well as access to international telephone services. However, globalization began to gain big spans in the 1990-s.
Sources of internationalization in all spheres of life
When we talk about globalization, we will of course view this process concerning such spheres as economics, culture, and politics. And what do you think? What is your opinion? If you do not like to write globalization essays, you can use the help of our essay writing service. Some useful information you can find here. Origin of globalization is compelled due to some sources. The first source is scientific and technical progress, which has led to the improvement of transport and sphere of communication. Success in computer technologies has allowed committing a breakthrough in information service. This has occurred thanks to establishment of Internet and e-mail. The second source can be regarded as giving the status of the world economy as a free. Thanks to taken measures, prices on goods and services has become cheaper. The third source can be hardily regarded as appearance of transnational companies. World was captured by transnational companies. Almost everyday all humanity drink or eat products of such companies (Coca-Cola, Pepsi, McDonalds). All people wore clothes of leading companies (Adidas, Nike). Microsoft, Apple, Windows, Android, iOs. This list can be continued forever. Thanks to process of transnationalization, we can use and consume such production and goods from abroad, which our country does not have. It is safe to say, that transnational companies have taken over the reins of government on information and financial markets. Economics of all countries is acting now as one mechanism. Market economics is playing central role today. More and more free enterprises appear in Europe and countries of former Soviet Union. The culture of all nationalities has become united. Because of that, mass media has become more uniform. English has got the status of international language. Influence of national states begins to weaken. Global problems are solved by international organizations such United Nations Organization, World Trade Organization and so on.
Good and bad sides of globalization
Such process as globalization, obviously has as advantages and disadvantages. In this essay about globalization, I will give examples of positive and negative effects of it on humanity and planet.
The emergence of international competition is the first plus of globalization. As domestic producers, so as multinational companies can compete with each other. Strong competition leads to appearance of high quality production. World trade is profitable in modern situation. Appearance of new trade unions promotes process of globalization. Modern technologies are rooted almost everyday in all spheres of human life with aim to increase performance. This is achieved thanks to scientific and technical progress. Countries, that are lagging behind in economic development, can overtake advanced countries. They can catch up economics and strengthen positions in world arena. Humanity has become more tolerant, so there are no prerequisites for wars and conflicts, racism and wars for natural resources. International tourism is flourishing. People can visit other countries and get acquainted with the culture of other nations.
Mainly, rich countries and individuals receive bulk of benefits. There are no benefits for countries with low growth of economics. National values are lost. We start to forget our own culture, traditions and customs. There is a risk of sole ruler. Too much power will be concentrated in hands of such ruler or maybe whole country. Some industries from world trade will get profit, growth of qualified workers, while others do not get support from state, become uncompetitive. Because of that owners lose money, people lose job. Service sector becomes more prioritized, while industry loses its positions. People need to look for new job with aim of receiving the money. Presence or absence of experience in specialty of workers has started to play important role because of competition. Qualified workers get high salaries, while others get almost nothing or does not have salary at all. This leads to unemployment. Unemployment leads to poverty. More about the reasons of poverty, you can find in essay on poverty. However, it can be also as a plus. People will need to train, develop and get qualification. Environment suffers from anthropogenic influence. Many rainforests are cut down. Oceans and seas are massively polluted by plants. There is a depletion of minerals. Generally, all this facts harm humanity and planet
To sum up, globalization is main topic for humanity. Obviously, it has as positive and negative impact on our planet. People should find ways to give emphasis positive changes in order to make world better. Decisions about negative consequences should be solved immediately by world. What is the essence of globalization then, if we doom our world into destruction?
Historically, globalization has been considered both a great opportunity and a threat. Globalization is a multifaceted phenomenon which entails several economic, cultural, and political pros and cons. Discover here the implications and arguments for and against globalization.
Debate based on the Module "Do Nations Matter on a Global World?" from the LSE100 Course (The London School of Economics and Political Science)
Brief history of globalization
Globalization is a process of growing exchange, interaction and integration between people, governments and private organizations across the globe. International trade, capital flows, migration, technological transfer and cultural exchanges are some of the typical manifestations of this process. The encounters and relationships between ancient civilizations and the colonization processes initiated during the Age of Discoveries were archaic and early-modern forms of globalization. During the 19th century technological progress and the Industrial Revolution catalyzed globalization. The political and economic international agreements after the Second World War accelerated this process even further. However, this term really became paramount in the academic literature and media after the fall of the Iron Curtain and the Soviet Union which enabled a much more fluid communications, exchanges of goods and services and migration.
For years globalization was equated with progress and economic growth and generally supported. However, in the last few years an increasing number of voices have started to criticize this phenomenon and point at several flaws and dangers associated with it. The anti-globalization movement has grown. Not only left-wing anti-capitalists oppose globalization, but conservative nationalists have recently emerged as a strong force against it. To what extent is globalization to blame for problems such as national unemployment, inequality, terrorism and cultural homogenization?
Globalization pros and cons
Globalization is such a complex phenomenon that here we are going to dissect its pros and cons across three different dimensions or angles: economic, cultural and political
Economic globalization echoes the views of neoliberal and neoclassicist thinkers in which states lose prominence and the world becomes a single global market of individual consumers. These consumers are characterized by their material and economic self-interest – rather than cultural, civic or other forms of identity. The expansion and dominance of global companies and brands is another key feature. These corporations contribute to deepen global interconnectedness not only by uniformly shaping consumption patterns across societies, but by binding economies together through complex supply chains, trade networks, flows of capital and manpower.
Pros of economic globalization:
- Cheaper prices for products and services (more optimized supply chains)
- Better availability of products and services
- Easier access to capital and commodities
- Increased competition
- Producers and retailers can diversify their markets and contribute to economic growth
Cons of economic globalization:
- Some countries struggle to compete
- Extractive behavior of some foreign companies and investors in resource-rich countries preventing economic diversification
- Strong bargaining power of multinational companies vis-à-vis local governments
- “Contagion effect” is more likely in times of crises
- Problems of “social dumping”
It refers to the process of transmission of values, ideas, cultural and artistic expressions. In the era of the Internet and fast communications people can interact more easily with each other. Multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism are to some extent manifestations of cultural globalization. Communities are less insulated than ever in history, even those who cannot travel can have today a good understanding of other cultures and meet virtually people from other parts of the world. People change their views and lifestyle influenced by global cultural and consumption trends.
Pros of cultural globalization:
- Access to new cultural products (art, entertainment, education)
- Better understanding of foreign values and attitudes. Less stereotyping and fewer misconceptions about other people and cultures
- Instant access to information from anywhere in the world
- Capacity to communicate and defend one’s values and ideals globally
- Customisation or adaptation of global cultural trends to local environment (“mestisage”)
Cons of cultural globalization:
- Spread of commodity-based consumer culture
- Dangers of cultural homogenization
- Westernization, cultural imperialism or cultural colonialism
- Some small cultures may lose their distinct features
- Dangerous or violent ideals can also spread faster (note the international character of the terror group IS)
The political dimension is a newer feature of the globalization debate, as over the last 30 years there has been a rise in the influence and power of international and regional institutions such as the European Union (EU), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO), MERCOSUR in South America, and the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). These international and supranational actors increasingly shape domestic politics.
Pros of political globalization:
- Access to international aid and financial support
- It contributes to world peace. It reduces risk of invasions, more checks on big powers and limitationn on nationalism
- International organizations are often committed to spread values like freedom and to fight abuses within countries
- Smaller countries can work together and gain more influence internationally
- Governments can learn from each other
Cons of political globalization:
- State sovereignty is reduced
- The functioning of international and supranational organizations is often not “democratic” in terms of representation and accountability
- Big countries can shape decisions in supranational organizations
- Sometimes countries can veto decisions and slow down decision making processes
- Coordination is difficult and expensive
To summarize, no matter from which angle we look at globalization, whether economic, cultural or political, both the opportunities and drawbacks are numerous.
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