Wonders Of Science Essay Wikipedia France

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Arts and Entertainment[edit]

  • Many bagpipes were developed in France,[3][4] including the Biniou, the bodega, the Boha, the Bousine, the Cabrette, the Chabrette, the Cornemuse du Centre, the loure, the Musette bechonnet, the Musette bressane and the Musette de cour.
  • First mechanical metronome by Étienne Loulié in 1696 (but the modern form of the metronome was patented only in 1815[5]).
  • Rococo in the early 18th century.[6]
  • Clavecin électrique, earliest surviving electric-powered musical instrument, in 1759 by Jean-Baptiste Thillaie Delaborde[7]
  • The Roulette was developed in 18th century France[8] from a primitive form created by Blaise Pascal (17th century).[9] In 1843, Louis and François Blanc introduced the single 0 style roulette wheel.
  • Many other gambling games and card games (including the French suits around 1480)[10] were invented in France, some from earlier games :
  • Photography :
  • Collotype process by Alphonse Poitevin in 1856.[14]
  • The Praxinoscope of Charles-Émile Reynaud (1877) is an animation device intermediary between the zoetrope and the cinema.
  • The Cabaret by Rodolphe Salis in 1881 in Paris.[15]
  • The Chronophotography by Étienne-Jules Marey (developed by himself, Eadweard Muybridge, Albert Londe, Georges Demeny and Ottomar Anschutz) in 1882 in Paris.[16]
  • The Cinema developed from chronophotography :
    • First motion picture camera and first projector by Louis Le Prince, Frenchman who worked in the United Kingdom and the United States.[17][18][19]
    • The Cinematograph by Léon Bouly (1892).
    • first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films by Auguste and Louis Lumière in Paris on 28 December 1895.[20]
    • Georges Méliès : first filmmaker to use the stop trick, or substitution, multiple exposures, time-lapse photography, dissolves, and hand-painted color in his films. His most famous film, A Trip to the Moon (Le voyage dans la Lune), in 1902, was the first science fiction film and the most popular movie of its time (another of his productions, Le Manoir du diable is also sometimes considered as the first horror movie).[21]
  • Developments of the modern Piano (invented by the Italian Bartolomeo Cristofori) : Pleyel et Cie (double piano), Sébastien Érard (double escapement action), Jean-Louis Boisselot (sostenuto pedal), Henri Fourneaux (Player piano).[22]
  • Ondes Martenot in 1928 by Maurice Martenot (early electronic musical instrument ).[23]
  • Gemmail in the 1930s by painter Jean Crotti.[24]
  • Clavioline, an electronic keyboard instrument, by Constant Martin in 1947.[25]
  • Etch A Sketch by André Cassagnes in the late 1950s.[26][27][28][29]
  • DivX around 1998 by Jérôme Rota at Montpellier.[30]

Chemistry[edit]

Physics, Mathematics & Measure[edit]

  • Stirling's formula was discovered and proven by Abraham de Moivre circa 1733.[63][64][65]
  • The conservation of mass by Antoine Lavoisier[66] (18th century).
  • Modern hydrometer by Jacques Charles.[67]
  • Metric system during the French Revolution.[68][69] and several measures used in physics in the SI.
  • Laplace's equation, Laplace operator, Laplace transform, Laplace distribution, Laplace's demon, Laplace expansion, Young–Laplace equation, Laplace number, Laplace limit, Laplace invariant, Laplace principle, proof that every equation of an even degree must have at least one realquadratic factor, solution of the linear partial differential equation of the second order and general proof of the Lagrange reversion theorem by Pierre-Simon Laplace in the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth century.[70]
  • The Gay-lussac Scale used by hydrometers and alcoholometers by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (after an idea of Jacques Charles).

Medicine & Biology[edit]

  • Ligature of arteries in 1565 by Ambroise Paré.[82]
  • Blood transfusion by Jean-Baptiste Denys on June 15, 1667.[83] and first modern transfusion by Émile Jeanbrau on October 16, 1914 (after the first non-direct transfusion performed on March 27, 1914 by the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin).
  • Modern dentistry by Pierre Fauchard (father of modern dentistry, early eighteenth century).[84][85]
  • Modern cataract surgery by Jacques Daviel in 1748 (even if early cataract surgery already existed in the antiquity).
  • Discovery of osmosis in 1748 by Jean-Antoine Nollet.[86] The word "osmosis" descends from the words "endosmose" and "exosmose", which were coined by French physician René Joachim Henri Dutrochet (1776–1847) from the Greek words ένδον (endon : within), έξο (exo : outside), and ωσμος (osmos : push, impulsion).
  • The first lifesize obstetrical mannequin, for teaching, by Angelique du Coudray in the 1750s.[87]
  • Stethoscope in 1816 by René Laennec at the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital in Paris.[88]
  • Medical Quinine in 1820 by Joseph Bienaimé Caventou.[89]
  • Codeine first isolated in 1832 by Pierre Robiquet.[90]
  • Aspirin in 1853 by Charles Frédéric Gerhardt.[91]
  • Hypodermic needle in 1853 by Charles Pravaz.[92]
  • Blind experiment by Claude Bernard (nineteenth century).[93]
  • Discovery of Plasmodium and its role in malaria by Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran on November 6, 1880.[94][95]
  • Incubator or Neonatal intensive care unit in 1881 by Étienne Stéphane Tarnier.[96] His student, Pierre-Constant Budin, followed in Tarnier’s footsteps, creating perinatology in the late 1890s.[97][98]
  • Rabies vaccine by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux in 1885.[99]
  • Antibiotics by Louis Pasteur and Jean Paul Vuillemin (by means of natural antibiosis; modern artificial antibiotics were developed later by the British Alexander Fleming).[100]
  • Mantoux test by Charles Mantoux in 1907.[101][102]
  • Tuberculosis vaccine by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921 (BCG).[103]
  • Antipsychotics in 1952 by Henri Laborit (chlorpromazine).[104]
  • Discovery of the cause of Down syndrome (chromosome 21 trisomy) by Jérôme Lejeune[105] in 1958-1959 (syndrome first described by Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol, Édouard Séguin and John Langdon Down)
  • First bone marrow transplant by Georges Mathé, a French oncologist, in 1959 on five Yugoslavian nuclear workers whose own marrow had been damaged by irradiation caused by a Criticality accident at the Vinča Nuclear Institute.[106][107][108][109]
  • Insulin pump in 1981 by Jacques Mirouze (first implantation) in Montpellier.[110]
  • Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus by Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier[111] (1983).
  • Deep brain stimulation (DBS) by Alim-Louis Benabid in 1987.[112][113]
  • Mifepristone, the abortion pill, by Étienne-Émile Baulieu in 1988.[114][115]
  • Hand transplantation on September 23, 1998 in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.[116]
  • Telesurgery by Jacques Marescaux and his team on 7 September 2001 across the Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg, Lindbergh Operation).[117]
  • Face transplant on November 27, 2005[118][119] by Dr Bernard Devauchelle.
  • CRISPR/Cas9gene editing by Emmanuelle Charpentier in 2012.[120]

Transportation[edit]

  • Taxi by Nicolas Sauvage in Paris in 1640.[121]
  • Steamboat by Denis Papin.[122] A boat with the world's first internal combustion engine was developed in 1807 by fellow Frenchman Nicéphore Niépce
  • Automobile by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769.[123][124]
  • Hot Air Balloon (later, Aerostat and Airship) by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, François Laurent d'Arlandes, the Montgolfier brothers[125][126] and Jacques Charles (who also invented the first hydrogen-filled balloon).
  • Parachute in the late 18th century by Louis-Sébastien Lenormand.[127]
  • Compressed air vehicle and Pneumatic motor by Andraud and Tessie of Motay in Chaillot on July 9, 1840,[128] improved by Louis Mékarski in 1843 in Nantes (see Mekarski system and Compressed air car).
  • Airplane :
  • Injector by Henri Giffard in 1858[138]
  • Internal combustion engine between 1859 and 1861 by Alphonse Beau de Rochas and Belgian-born Étienne Lenoir in Paris.[139]
  • Submarine : The first submarine not relying on human power was the French Plongeur (meaning diver), launched in 1863, and using compressed air at 180 psi (1241 kPa).[140]
  • Bicycle in 1864 by Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement (endless power-transmitting chain invented by Jacques de Vaucanson in 1770 and applied to bicycles by J. F. Tretz).[141][142][143]
  • Gunpowder powered ornithopter by Gustave Trouvé in 1870[144]
  • First manned balloon mail during the Siege of Paris (1871)
  • First outboardmotorboat by Gustave Trouvé around 1870,[145] patented in May 1880[146]
  • Inflatabletyres for cars by Édouard Michelin in 1895[147]
  • Scooter[148] (1902) and Moped.
  • V8 engine by Léon Levavasseur in 1902[149]
  • Modern automobileDrum brake in 1902 by Louis Renault.[150]
  • Helicopter : in 1907, the two first flying helicopters were experimented independently by Louis Breguet[151] and Paul Cornu.[152]
  • Seaplane by Gabriel Voisin in June 1905 (non-autonomous) and by Henri Fabre in 1910 (autonomous : Fabre Hydravion).[153]
  • Ramjet by René Lorin in 1913.[154]
  • Catalytic converter by Eugene Houdry in 1956.[155][156]
  • Concorde by Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation (1969)
  • HDI diesel engine in 1998 by PSA Peugeot Citroën.

Clothing[edit]

Food and cooking[edit]

Weapons and military[edit]

  • Bec de corbin, a popular medieval weapon.
  • Motte-and-bailey, a form of castle.[188]
  • The Pot-de-fer, a primitive cannon during the Hundred Years' War.[189]
  • Culverin, ancestor of the musket.[190]
  • Flintlock by Marin le Bourgeoys in 1612.[191]
  • Corvette, a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship that appeared in the 1670s.
  • Bayonet (from Frenchbaïonnette)[192]
  • Modern military uniform in the mid 17th century.[193]
  • Floating battery, first used during the Great Siege of Gibraltar in September 1782.[194][195]
  • Mass conscription or Levée en masse during the French Revolution.[196]
  • Corps by Napoleon in 1805.[197]
  • Carabine à tige by Louis-Étienne de Thouvenin (improvement of an earlier invention by Henri-Gustave Delvigne) before 1844.[198]
  • Minié rifle by Claude-Étienne Minié, first reliable (easy to load) muzzle-loading rifle in 1849.[199][200] In the artillery, from 1859, the La Hitte rifled guns were a considerable improvement over the previous smooth-bore guns which had been in use,[201] able to shoot at 3,000 meters either regulars shells, ball-loaded shells or grapeshot. They appear to have been the first case of usage of rifled cannons on a battlefield.[202]
  • First naval periscope in 1854 by Hippolyte Marié-Davy.[203][204][205][206]
  • Canne de combat and Savate.
  • Épée, the modern derivative of the dueling sword, used for fencing.
  • Chassepot by Antoine Alphonse Chassepot in 1866.[207]
  • Smokelessgunpowder (modern nitrocellulose-based) : Poudre B by Paul Marie Eugène Vieille in 1884.[208][209] It was first used to load the Lebel Model 1886 rifle (invented by Nicolas Lebel), making it the first military firearm to use smokeless powder ammunition. It is also the first rifle to use full metal jacket bullets as its standard ammunition.
  • First Air force in 1910.[210]
  • Sonar, first ultrasonic submarine detector using an electrostatic method (and first practical military sonar) in 1916-1917 by Paul Langevin (with Constantin Chilowsky).[211]
  • Tanks : developed at the same time (1915-1916) in France and in Great Britain. France was the second country to use tanks on the battlefield (after Great Britain). in 1916, the first practical light tank, the Renault FT with the first full 360° rotation turret became, for armour historian Steven Zaloga "the world's first modern tank".[212]

Communication & Computers[edit]

  • Optical Telegraph by Claude Chappe in 1792.[213][214]
  • Modern pencil by Nicolas-Jacques Conté in 1795.[215]
  • Paper machine by Louis-Nicolas Robert in 1799.[216]
  • Fresnel lens by Augustin-Jean Fresnel[217]
  • Jean-François Champollion first deciphered the Rosetta Stone (1822) : modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs
  • Braille in 1825 by Louis Braille, a blind Frenchman:[218] first digital form of writing.[219]
  • Pencil sharpener by Bernard Lassimone in 1828.[220] Therry des Estwaux created an improved mechanical sharpener in 1847.[220]
  • Baudot code by Émile Baudot in 1870[221] and a multiplexedprinting telegraph system that used his code and allowed multiple transmissions over a single line.[222]
  • Coherer by Édouard Branly around 1890.[223][224][225]
  • Belinograph (Wirephoto) by Édouard Belin in 1913.[226]
  • The HSL color space was invented in 1938 by Georges Valensi[227][228]
  • Bic Cristal in 1949.[229][230]
  • Bézier curves by Paul de Casteljau in 1959.[231]
  • Computer-aided manufacturing by Pierre Bézier in 1971 as an engineer at Renault.[232][233]
  • Micral, earliest commercial, non-kit personal computer based on a microprocessor, by André Truong Trong Thi and François Gernelle in June 1972.[234]
  • Datagrams and CYCLADES in 1972-1973 by Louis Pouzin (which inspired Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf when they invented the TCP/IP several years later).[235]
  • Smart Card by Roland Moreno[236][237] in 1974 after the automated chip card.
  • Minitel, the birth and precursor of the Internet in 1980.[238]
  • Camera phone by Philippe Kahn in 1997.[239][240][241]
  • Several Programming languages (non-exhaustive list) :
1800s engraving French Roulette
Optical pumping of a laser rod (bottom) with an arc lamp (top). Red: hot. Blue: cold. Green: light. Non-green arrows: water flow. Solid colors: metal. Light colors: fused quartz. Refs: [5], [6],[7]
Insulin pump, showing an infusion set loaded into spring-loaded insertion device.
Air France Concorde in 1977
Early-19th century socket bayonet

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