So much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they've finished the essay.
The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.
To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following:
- Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning.
- Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama.
- Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion.
To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:
- Conclude with a quotation from or reference to a primary or secondary source, one that amplifies your main point or puts it in a different perspective. A quotation from, say, the novel or poem you're writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point. For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James Joyce's short story collection, Dubliners, with information about Joyce's own complex feelings towards Dublin, his home. Or you might end with a biographer's statement about Joyce's attitude toward Dublin, which could illuminate his characters' responses to the city. Just be cautious, especially about using secondary material: make sure that you get the last word.
- Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like 60 Minutes.
- Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your argument. For example, an essay on Marx's treatment of the conflict between wage labor and capital might begin with Marx's claim that the "capitalist economy is . . . a gigantic enterprise ofdehumanization"; the essay might end by suggesting that Marxist analysis is itself dehumanizing because it construes everything in economic -- rather than moral or ethical-- terms.
- Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an essay on the novel Ambiguous Adventure, by the Senegalese writer Cheikh Hamidou Kane, might open with the idea that the protagonist's development suggests Kane's belief in the need to integrate Western materialism and Sufi spirituality in modern Senegal. The conclusion might make the new but related point that the novel on the whole suggests that such an integration is (or isn't) possible.
Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay:
- Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas.
- Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up." These phrases can be useful--even welcome--in oral presentations. But readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the pages, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your audience if you belabor the obvious.
- Resist the urge to apologize. If you've immersed yourself in your subject, you now know a good deal more about it than you can possibly include in a five- or ten- or 20-page essay. As a result, by the time you've finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you've produced. (And if you haven't immersed yourself in your subject, you may be feeling even more doubtful about your essay as you approach the conclusion.) Repress those doubts. Don't undercut your authority by saying things like, "this is just one approach to the subject; there may be other, better approaches. . ."
Copyright 1998, Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University
Deforestation is the cutting of trees permanently by the people to clear forests to get free land for further usage like farming, housing, industrialization, urbanization, etc.
Essay on Deforestation
Deforestation is arising as the main environmental and social issue which has now taken the form of more than a powerful demon. We must know about the causes, effects and ways to solve the problems arisen because of the deforestation. We have provided many paragraphs, long and short essay on deforestation in order to help your kids and children to get aware about the problem as well as get participated in the essay writing competition in the school or outside the school. You can select any deforestation essay given below according to the class standard:
Deforestation Essay 1 (100 words)
Deforestation is the removal of forests on a big level by cutting down plants or burning of forests for fulfilling the personal needs. Forests are of great importance for the whole human fraternity as well as managing the natural balance in the environment. However, human beings are regularly cutting down the trees without seeing its side effects on the society and environment. Woods have been of great importance historically from the ancient time and used for many purposes like heating fuel, building houses, ships, paper production and many more daily activities of the human beings. Forests are very necessary for us and our future generations to enjoy and live a healthy and peaceful life in the healthy environment free of pollution.
Deforestation Essay 2 (150 words)
Deforestation is arising as the major global problem to the society and environment. It is like a serious penalty to the planet and indicating the end of life on this planet. The regular cutting of the forests is creating lots of negative effects over the climate, environment, biodiversity, whole atmosphere as well as threatening the cultural and physical survival of the human being. There are many causes of the deforestation such as wood extraction because of the increasing human population and industrial interests of people. Woods are considered as the primary product of the forest and structural component of the physical requirement of the human being.
Exploding human population requires more land to live and harvesting so they need to cut the forests. In this way deforestation is going on more rapidly to fulfill the human needs in many ways. However, the effects of deforestation are faster than the deforestation itself. It is affecting the human lives to a great extent by forcing the negative changes to the environment and atmosphere.
Deforestation Essay 3 (200 words)
Deforestation is the removal of trees on a vast level for fulfilling all the requirements of the growing population. Humans being are so selfish; they are doing deforestation by completely removing the forests without replanting. However, they do not know that unknowingly they are digging a big pit for their own. People are changing the forests into the land forms for getting more wood, fuel, harvesting, making farms, building home and cities to live comfortably.
Deforestation results in many effects like loss of animal home, animals are dying, environment change, seasonal change, increasing temperature, rising environmental heat, global warming, increasing green house gas effect, melting ice caps and glaciers, increasing seas level, weakening ozone layer, hole in the ozone layer, sea animal dying, increasing risks of natural disaster like storm, cyclone, typhoon, flood, drought, and many more negative changes which are enough to last the existence of life on the earth.
Forests plays great role in balancing the human life and environmental cycle by regulating the water cycle, production of soil, providing habitat for animals, providing oxygen, utilizing harmful CO2, regulating environmental temperature, preventing soil erosion and many more. By cutting the forests we are stopping all the positive activities done by forests in the favour of human and environment.
Deforestation Essay 4 (250 words)
Deforestation is the rapid loss of forests by cutting plants regularly without replanting. It is endangering the wildlife, human health and environment. Increasing human population, increasing crowd, increasing competition in the world force human being to cut the forests and establish well developed cities or farms or land for harvesting. In such a competitive world, every nation want to overlap other developed and advanced countries to go ahead and make them powerful. People are in need to cut the forests to make houses, parks, multiplexes, industries, public infrastructure, paper production, fuel, etc. Some greedy people are cutting forests for earning more money by selling woods and increasing the danger to the wildlife and human life.
Wild animals are migrating and dying, original flora and fauna are lasting, environment is changing negatively and disturbing the human life. Natural habitat of the most important animals is destroying because of this some are migrating to other areas or entering to the human areas or dying. We need to preserve trees by stopping the forest cutting or replanting the plants in order to save the animal sanctuary and maintaining the natural cycles of the environment to save the life here in future. Preservation of forests is also necessary to get fresh and healthy oxygen as well as reducing the amount of carbon dioxide gas.
Deforestation lead to increasing air pollution, increasing level of poisonous gases in the environment, increasing soil and water pollution, increasing environmental heat, and many more. All the negative effects of deforestation cause many health disorders and most importantly lungs and respiratory problems.
Deforestation Essay 5 (300 words)
Deforestation is the finishing of the forests by the human beings. Increasing human population day by day is increasing the need for land on the earth for agricultural, industrial, residential, commercial, cities and other purposes which involves permanent forest removal. In the last century, our earth was covered with the forests everywhere however now-a-days only some counted forests exist. Deforestation is a big problem in India as well as other countries. It is a global issue arising as the big environmental and social issue around the globe.
Deforestation disturbs the human lives by causing several imbalances ecologically and environmentally. Deforestation is alarming continuously and indicating the need to stop cutting plants for the safety of human lives. Some people are doing deforestation to fulfill their greediness of earning money from wood. People are cutting plants for their agricultural activities, logging (to make papers, match-sticks, furniture, etc), urbanization (road construction, housing, etc), desertification of land, mining (oil and coal mining), fires (to get heat), etc.
Deforestation is affecting the health of human being and fresh environment through climate imbalance, increasing global warming, soil erosion, floods, wildlife extinction, decreasing level fresh oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide gas and many more. Deforestation is very necessary stop in order to run the life as usual in better way. There should be some strict rules and regulations by the government of the country which everyone must follow to check deforestation. There should be simple and easy ways to make common people aware about the causes and effects of deforestation. Population should be controlled to lessen the need of forests cutting. Whenever any plant is cut, there should be rules for replanting the plants in the place of old one.
Deforestation Essay 6 (400 words)
Deforestation is the permanent destruction of the forests in order to enhance sources for life and use of woods. Cutting plant is not bad however cutting it permanently is bad. If one is cutting plant, he/she should do replanting on the same place or other place. Deforestation is one for many purposes like harvesting, livestock, logging, building houses, furniture, roads, firewood, industrialization, and other many purposes. Deforestation is affecting the environment more badly and more rapidly. Earth was full of forests in the last century however currently around eighty percent of the forests have been cut and destroyed and even rain forests has been disappeared permanently.
Forests are required for the wellness of the wild animals, human being and environment. Because of the deforestation many unique species of the plants and animals has been extinct permanently. The process of plant cutting is disrupting the natural carbon cycle and increasing its level in the environment day by day. Forests are the best medium to utilize the CO2 gas from the environment as well as remove other pollutants from the atmosphere and thus maintain the freshness of the environment. Whenever trees are destroyed or burned by any means it releases carbon and methane which is dangerous for human life. Both of the gases are called as the green house gas and involve in the greenhouse effect which ultimately causes global warming.
Forests are very necessary for the proper rain, getting medicine, air freshness, removing air pollution, getting wood for many purposes, etc. When we cut plants, it disturbs all the cycles and affects human lives. Instead of cutting plants to fulfill the need of paper, we should make the habit of recycling the old things as possible as to avoid the cut of new plants. Just imagine the planet without water, life is not possible. And same way, life is also not possible without plants and forests as they are the source of rain, fresh air, animal habitat, shadows, wood, etc.
Without plant, it is not possible to rain on the earth, nor fresh air, no animals, no shadows, no woods, and medicine. Everywhere would be only heat, warm, drought, flood, storm, carbon dioxide gas, methane, other poisonous gases, no winter season and rainy season, only summer season. We should join our hands together to prevent the deforestation. We should not waste the papers and avoid the unnecessary use of things like paper kitchen towels, facial tissues, etc. We should think about the reuse and recycle of the papers things without wasting them to lessen the need of plants cutting. Saving forests and plants is in our own hand and only a small step from the end of us all may show a big result towards stopping deforestation.
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